Fascial Stretch Therapy™ and SI:
New innovations for practice
Chris Frederick has been an SI practitioner since 2004 and a physical therapist since 1989.
He is co-director and a lead instructor with his wife, Ann Frederick, of the Stretch to Win
Institute where multidisciplinary manual therapy professionals are trained and certified in
Fascial Stretch Therapy™. Chris co-authored a book with his wife Ann, “Stretch to Win,”
published by Human Kinetics. For more information, go to www.stwinstitute.com or reach
the author at [email protected].
Fascial Stretch Therapy (FST) was created by Ann Frederick in 1993, and the author has
been using it as a complementary adjunct to Structural Integration, both as a separate system strategy and as an integral part of individual SI sessions since 2004. This article describes a brief history of FST, its theory and principles, and how it can be practically used to enhance SI.
At the IASI convention 2010, keynote speaker Michael Salveson, a 40-year practitioner
of SI, emphasized that developing a range of touch is important for us as practitioners. On the heels of that statement, this article will hopefully stimulate some new ideas and innovations in SI practice, by integrating a relatively new manual fascial manipulation system that has quietly ‘grown up’ over the last seventeen years.
Fascial Stretch Therapy (or FST) was developed by Ann Frederick, now a KMI (Kinesis Myofascial Integration) Certified Structural Integrator, in 1993. She was approached by the head strength coach of Arizona State University in 1995 and was asked to help increase the flexibility of the Sun Devils football team (they were Rose Bowl contenders in 1997) – a great opportunity, but she had a problem. Ann didn’t own a massage table (she wasn’t an SI practitioner yet), and after struggling with stretching players on floor mats, she realized she needed better leverage. There was no table to be found in the strength and conditioning room, so she had the athlete lie on a weight lifting bench, tied one leg down with a weight belt (the big, wide, thick leather back-support kind), and proceeded with
stretching the player. Very soon, there was a long line of anxious players waiting to experience what became the new word in the locker room, “You’ve got to see the Stretch Lady!” Incidentally, the team reported a 45% reduction in overall injuries and the only different factor changed in their training was FST.
Since Ann and I have collaborated in 1999, FST has evolved much over the years. After we
completed our training as SI practitioners in KMI in 2004, I developed complementary SI-FST manual therapy approaches, integrating this into my 21-year practice as a manually-oriented orthopedic, sports, and performing arts physical therapist.
The rest of this article provides an overview of the principles of FST, after which I offer some examples of application, with photographs showing how one may integrate FST with SI to enhance one’s practice.
Principles of Fascial Stretch Therapy FST follows ten principles, which help guide
students when they learn the initial default recipe1:
1. Synchronize your breathing with your movement.
2. Tune your nervous system to current conditions.
3. Follow a logical anatomical order.
4. Make gains in range of motion without pain.
5. Stretch the fascia, not just the muscle.
6. Use multiple planes of movement.
7. Target the entire joint.
8. Use traction for maximal lengthening.
9. Facilitate body reflexes for optimal results.
10. Adjust your stretching to your present goals.
Principle 1: Synchronize your Breathing with your Movement2
While it may seem obvious and natural for us as SI practitioners to coordinate breathing–
ours and our clients–in our sessions, the relevance goes up a notch when the session
includes movement or neuromyofascial reeducation. In FST, the trunk and/or limbs are
brought to their restricted end ranges of motion, where many clients are found to be weak when they actively try to contract their myofascia. They are often also kinesthetically ignorant of how to move when you put them into preparatory stretch movement positions, despite being given a specific directional verbal command.
Oftentimes, this is when clients alter their breathing, usually holding it, in an extra effort,
after they see that they did not correctly perform the movement that you requested the first time.
This becomes an opportunity to educate and train the client–naturally, to improve breathing, proprioception, and kinesthetics, but also to help the client gain confidence, especially in directions of movement where fear still persists, years after injury or trauma.
Synchronized breathing also improves manual therapy outcomes.
In addition to improving range of motion and flexibility with synchronized breathing
during FST, favorable changes in the nervous system occur, as noted in the next principle.
Principle 2: Tune your Nervous System to Current Conditions3
There are arc-like patterns of somatoemotional responses in clients who receive FST, similar to the patterns seen in SI.
When manipulating the fascia with FST, you can this arc and quickly change the state of
your client’s nervous system, based on your intention and goals.
For purposes of regeneration or recovery, the parasympathetic nervous system is
desired to achieve the greatest response from FST intervention. It is a common experience, if your client has been through physical therapy orathletic training, that they were stretched at or beyond the barrier of ROM resistance, where discomfort, if not pain, was felt. Traditionally the static stretch was held at that point for 15-30 seconds and repeated 2-3 times. It was more common than not to see the person being stretched grimacing or twitching their appendages, while trying to endure the uncomfortable stretch. More often than not, that kind of stretching stimulated the sympathetic nervous system, particularly the stretch reflex (an autonomic protective concentric contraction).
Consequently the outcomes using traditional stretching on disorders like adhesive capsulitis (a.k.a. “frozen shoulder”) were poor.
As in some other manual therapydisciplines, we have found that clients respond better in FST when discomfort is not elicited.
This is especially true with clients who have been through the aforementioned traditional static stretching and still have the memory of that trauma in their tissue. However, while discomfort is avoided in FST with new clients, seasoned clients actually respond better to increasing intensities and durations. It appears that their stretch tolerance has increased cumulatively, similar to what happens when any work load that imposes an adaptive stress response on the body over time is increasingly successfully endured.
This is one reason that discomfort is a relative term whose meaning changes to the client as
their tissue changes.
On the other hand, when I have used FST before and between events at the Olympic trials
for track athletes, I have had success performing FST three times faster to keep the athlete
‘dynamically relaxed’, feeling loose but alert and ready to compete in the next demanding event.
This is what is meant by tuning the nervous system to the conditions at hand, varying
parameters for the needs and goals of the client.
Principle 3: Follow a Logical Anatomical Order4
We have found after many years of trying all kinds of combinations of stretch movements that there is an optimum sequence for releasng fascial tissue. When indicated, we free up
restricted movements in the joint capsule first, then we release restricted shorter myofascial units (a.k.a. one-joint muscles) before longer myofascial units (a.k.a. multi-joint muscles), and lastly, we release neurofascial units (i.e. central and peripheral nervous system moblization and neurodynamics). Following this sequence has outcomes, with athletes showing results over a shorter period of time. This concept will be more completely understood when combined with Principles 4-8 below.
Principle 4: Make Gains in Range of Motion (ROM) without Pain5
If it is determined in the FST initial assessment that the client is hypertonic,
restricted, or hypomobile, whether regionally or globally in the neuromyofascia, the assisted stretch session is still performed without pain.
This approach avoids the stretch reflex, which is an undesirable by-product of self or
assisted stretching when the intensity or duration exceeds the person’s threshold. This
threshold is highly variable, so the stretch must be individualized, not only from person to person but from day to day–for example, any client may present dehydrated one day
and not on another. Like a competent SI practitioner, the FST practitioner will adjust
parameters of the session to accomodate not just their agenda but also the ‘end feel’ of
tissue barriers to stretch movements and the needs of the client at that particular moment.
As noted in Principle 2, we have noticed a cumulative increase in tolerance to stretch
therapy (apart from the increased range of motion) that enables the practitioner to optimize and maintain the proper levels of functional range of motion and flexibility for the client. When the client has reached a certain level of tolerance, the client is able to maintain gains made in sessions through a self stretch program. This addresses the common complaint from many clients that they never seemed to make progress with self stretching in the past, so they avoided it.
Principle 5: Stretch the Fascia, Not Just the Muscle6
Naturally, this statement is a no-brainer for people in the SI field, and was originally spelled out in the principles for those less fascially enlightened. Yet it also reflects a kindred philosophy that FST has had with SI even before we became SI practitioners.
What makes this principle work quite well for those practicing SI, is that FST enhances
mobility, not only of the myofascia, but also of the joint capsule (described below in Principle
7) and nerves (described below in Principles 8 and 9) in ways that are not addressed during basic SI training.
Principle 6: Use Multiple Planes of Movement7
A full-body FST session is performed by first tractioning the client’s body and limbs from the center outwards, decompressing and lengthening with movement what is short, tight,
or restricted. Stretch movements along cardinal, spiral, and diagonal planes in rotational patternswith traction leave no stone unturned, as mobility is restored where it was lost. This also helps to remove the constant strain factor present in tissue suffering from excessive length and/or joint hypermobility. Combinations of passive, active-assisted, active, and resisted movements by the FST practitioner, working with the client in a seamless flow of rhythmic, undulating movement, bring about improved flexibility,
strength, proprioception, kinesthetics, confidence, and function. Therefore, when a
stabilization and strengthening program is initiated after SI-FST combination sessions, functional improvement is easy, rapid, and complete.
Principle 7: Target the Entire Joint8
The premise here is that releasing restrictions in fascia at the deepest layer of the
joint capsule helps to release fascia at other levels, thereby more rapidly improving response and results. To understand this premise, try the following simple test on a seasoned client who gives you their permission, after you have explained what you will do and what the response may be.
Lab Exercise: Testing Hip Joint Mobility
First, perform a passive straight leg raise test (SLR) (contraindicated if they have sciatica) and eyeball how high it goes before you feel the very first barrier to that motion. Also take note where they feel it (commonly in back of knee, hamstring mid-belly, and/or calf). Then bring them back down and do the following three times: get a good grip around their malleoli or one hand above the ankle joint and one below (see Photo 1) and, as your client exhales, slowly lean your full body weight backward and away from your client (contraindications: hip replacements, severe osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, rheumatoid arthritis, acute injury).
You will get one of three responses:
1. Hypermobile: the hip feels (to you and/or your client) like it will easily come out of the
joint or actually does sublux, in which case you slowly release and it will return back to
Photo 1: Single leg traction the socket. Do not do this again–repeated movements like this are contraindicated and should not be part of your sessions. However stretching in directions that are not hypermobile is fine.
Repeat the SLR test ! since you did not do anything significant, no change will be evident.
2. Normal: you feel only a slight give in the joint capsule, such that if you gave it twice as
much force, it might come out of the joint a little more. Repeated movements like this are
not necessary but could further relax the client and improve the response to more movement and hence the whole session.
Repeat the SLR test ! you may see a slight increase in ROM.
3. Hypomobile: it moves hardly at all or not at all, no matter how hard you pull. This is an
indication that the joint is compressed, at the least from a tight capsule and associated
ligaments (and possibly also from overlying adhesed tendon) and traction of the joint
capsule will be a necessary and important part of your sessions. Therefore perform this
movement again two or three times, increasing your intensity (strength of pull) and duration of the traction stretch a little more each time, following the above notes for responses.
Repeat the SLR test–if you did it correctly, you should see at least a moderate increase in ROM (5-20 degrees) associated with an ease of ‘end feel’ in the tissue barrier.
These results are a clear indication that this movement needs to be included in your session, and I recommend doing it after each successivestretch movement until it feels ‘normal’. This can happen as quickly as in one session, or it may take up to three if the joint is particularly restricted. (Use caution with the elderly as they may have bone spurs–a.k.a. osteophytes–and may need x-rays and medical clearance for you to proceed. However, if you follow my instructions above and start the three repetitions of traction gently before increasing intensity and duration, your client will be fine. As with any manual technique, your intuition and experience is your guide–stop if something doesn’t feel right).
After assessing the joint capsule, as noted above in the hip example, the FST practitioner
will ‘scour’ the joint with purposeful, undulating movements in multiple planes to seek out,
identify, and/or eliminate other causes of specific restrictions that impede movement.
Principle 8: Use Traction for Maximal Lengthening9
As noted in the last principle, our intent is to get maximal lengthening from the deepest
fascial structure, the joint capsule, which releases restrictions locally, but just as importantly appears to initiate a cascade of releases in all tissues supplied by the surrounding neural network. (That is what we observe, but obviously research must confirm this.). The hip mobility testing and traction experiment described under
the last principle may have given you a glimpse of this effect.
With practiced application, SI practitioners will observe that joint traction has both local and global effects, reducing hypertonicity, stimulating the PNS, and making it easier and
more effective to do SI. Adding traction to short myofascial units and their local fascial
continuities reciprocally releases the longer fascial units. For example, performing the twenty different FST movements that we have designed to release the short fascial units of the hip, will always increase the SLR and hamstring flexibility by 25-50%, even without directly stretching the hamstrings. This lends support to Principle 3:
follow a logical anatomical order.
Progressively moving out from proximal attachments of myofascia to distal and then
adding specific appendage movements to enhance the neurodynamic effect completes the
table-based therapy, so that the client is better able to participate in movement education and motor repatterning. In brief, traction combinations of the joint capsule and the rest of
the fascia are some of our best manual therapy tools that we can use to counteract the effects of gravity and decompress the body rapidly and effectively, and in a way we just can’t do with other techniques of fascial manipulation. This makes traction a perfect and necessary complement to our other techniques.
Principle 9: Facilitate Body
Reflexes for Optimal Results10
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) was developed in the 1940s by a medical
physician-scientist and physical therapists to rehabilitate patients with polio.11 It is based on certain established observations about neurophysiological reflexes and on practically
derived principles of muscle facilitation and inhibition. With applied use, which was considered solid scientific evidence at the time, PNF evolved in sports training and rehab, and later research confirmed that this technique had the best outcomes with respect to certain measures of ROM and performance. Subsequently, the original developer of FST, Ann Frederick, confirmed through her research in 1997 that PNF theory worked well for her in the development phase of FST.
Since then, we have modified the application of PNF theory and, to cite one example, we have found that to get an antagonistic muscle to relax before a passive stretch, a 10-20% active muscle contraction, consisting of combining concentric contraction for a few degrees followed by isometic resistance, works optimally. This is in contrast to the original PNF rehab technique, which used 100% or maximal isometric resistance, and to the PNF used in sports training which has typically used 50-80% resistance.
Principle 10: Adjust your Stretching to your Present Goals12
As alluded to previously, the basic parameters of FST stretch movements (intensity, duration, and frequency) coupled with the vector and depth variables (involving traction in multiple planes, addressing first the joint capsule, then moving out to address the shorter, deeper myofascial spans, then the longer, more superficial spans, then the neurofascia) must all be adjusted, tuned, and individualized.
IASI keynote speaker Michael Salveson said essentially the same thing about SI, namely that a deep, directed touch is needed to add input to the system and release fibrosis. However, a light, listening touch is just as important to soothe the nervous system. He stated that an effective practitioner can work throughout the range of touch
and know when to use what.
In FST, if our intent is for our client to recover or regenerate from a stressful day of work
or training, and we are to assist them in healing, then we move at a slower pace, timing the stretch movements with the exhalation. On the other hand, if our intent is to offer supportive work for an athlete or fitness enthusiast during training and/or competitive events, so that they recover quickly and completely from intense physical and mental stress, then in FST we perform a quicker flow of stretch movements (often at three times the ‘regeneration pace’), similar to the dynamic stretching that athletes do to warm up. FST for training helps achieve the athlete’s goals of staying loose but strong and mentally
focused to keep sport performance at a consistently high level.
Like SI, Fascial Stretch Therapy can be used locally or globally with great effect, but I have
observed that the two systems integrated within each session or implemented sequentially–a complete FST series following a complete SI series–have even more powerful effects. For example, in the common case of clients that present with weakness in the glutes, the commonly associated finding of restrictions in the deep front line of the iliacus and/or psoas begs for local SI techniques, coupled with FST to release the joint capsule, followed by short and long myofascial stretching. Muscle testing after this treatment reveals that the glutes were merely inhibited by the restricted and tight Deep Front Line,14 and the hip abductors fire up to full power, most often within just one session. Active and functional movement re-education follows the manual work, to help the client avoid old habits and compensations, to integrate and complete the session, and to prolong the therapeutic effect. In working with a particular client, comprehensive assessment helps direct how best to integrate use of the two systems.
Joint capsule traction provides another example of how technique and strategy must be
adjusted to match the client’s conditions. Traction directed at the joint capsule must be used gently, with caution, and only if indicated on the young who still have open growth plates. The elderly need decompression of their joints perhaps more than anyone, but old joints change shape, developing spurs and torn and/or loose cartilage. In general, more precautions must be considered alongside the perceived benefits of performing stretch and tractioning techniques when we are setting goals and working with our elderly and young clients. There are many more examples, but my point is made that FST, just like any other technique or approach, must be adjusted to the conditions at hand for optimal outcomes.
Fascial Stretch Therapy Combined| with Structural Integration
To understand how Fascial Stretch Therapy might be integrated into a Structural Integration practice, you must first have a picture of what FST looks like when the practitioner is ‘in the flow.’ In FST, the practitioner literally performs a slow undulating, oscillatory dance, responding to the ebbs and flows within the client’s body nuanced tractional stretching that gently reorganizes the body’s liquid crystal, thereby moving lymph and blood, hydrating tissue, restoring joint space, and improving the length and elasticity of the neuromyofascia. We call this movement ‘The Stretch Wave™,’ and
while it may be slow sometimes and quicker at other times, it is never static.13 To the casual observer it appears that the practitioner of FST is performing a slow, soothing dance with the client, who eventually participates with variousforms of active movement. The movement of body fluids is evidenced by clients needing to urinate during and after the session, as well as common expressions of feeling the rush of warm from blood inflow to areas previously underserved.
The intent with FST is to target the various layers of fascia in depth, breadth, and length,
which is accomplished through an artful combination of client and therapist positioning,
along with progressive changes in intensity, duration , and frequency of the stretch
movements, as dictated by client tolerance and tissue response.
Following is a discussion of how some of the fascial continuities described in Tom Myers’
Anatomy Trains can be stretched using FST.
These ‘lines’ are used as a descriptive map by various SI schools, and so many readers will be familiar with them. They are presented here in no particular order.
Deep Front Line (DFL)15 and Superficial Front Line (SFL)16
If we use the DFL example again, the deepest layer of fascia, the hip joint capsule, is
addressed first in the FST system. If the joint capsule is hypomobile in longitudinal traction, it is lengthened in that direction first to restore joint space and mobility (see Photo 1). After getting maximal tissue response from joint capsule tractional stretching, the short, deep myofascial track of the DFL is addressed next; this is part of the ‘easy’strategy of releasing local regions before global regions. We accomplish this through varied angles of hip extension, keeping the knee only slightly flexed to avoid increasing tension distally (see Photo 2).
To give an example of how tissue can be specifically targeted in this area through stretch,
if the client is sidelying and the practitioner raises the client’s knee in abduction while
maintaining hip extension, then the anteromedial myofascia of the femoral triangle, hip joint capsule, pectineus and iliopsoas tendon is targeted (see Photo 3). If the knee is lowered below the level of the table and crosses thebody’s midline sagittal plane then the
anterolateral myofascia that crosses the hip (e.g. the TFL and iliacus) is differentiated and
targeted (see Photo 4). Of course, this stretch will also access and address the Lateral and
Spiral Lines as the angle is varied. If the knee is kept in a strict sagittal plane and brought
straight back into hip extension then the anterior myofascia of the hip joint capsule and
iliopsoas is emphasized. After the hip joint capsule and DFL are released, the stretch is extended distally to theSFL by adding varying amounts of knee flexion with traction at varying angles (see Photo 5).
With repeated sessions, the effects are cumulative such that as the stretch tolerance of
the client increases, the practitioner is able to increase the three-dimensional effect of the
stretch, thereby extending and magnifying the global response.
The previous description of FST principles in action is similarly applied to the Deep and
Superficial Front Lines of the upper body and to rest of the body’s fascial lines. Therefore,
what follows are brief notes to support the photographs of other FST movements presented here.
The reader is encouraged to explore these moves with clients or patients.
Lateral Line (LL)17
Note in Photo 6 how Ann Frederick positions my lateral malleolus on her distal thigh,
creating a ‘hook’ with which she adds traction to the stretch. To progress the line of stretch into the upper body, simply have the client reach overhead and hold onto the table. Even better, use an assistant who knows how to traction from above to get a truly decompressive effect up anddown the entire line.
Many leg length discrepancies are adequately addressed by stretching the lateral
line. Adding combinations of upper and/or lower body flexion and extension with rotation
helps address imbalances in the intersection of the Spiral Lines with the LL.
Photo 7 shows stretching along one particular angle of the lateral line of the upper
body. After SI lateral line work in this region, it is especially beneficial to immediately follow up with stretching of the intercostals and axilla and mobilization of the scapula to improve breathing and free up humeral movement.
The Back Functional Line18 and “Fans of the Hip”19
Photo 8 is an example of a more extreme or advanced position for the client, but it is included here for the reader to see the possibilities of where most fit people can and
should be able to go–opening up this region of the body is of great value. A beginner or basic position of this stretch is with the knee muchfurther away from the client’s chest
with their foot placed securely on the practitioner’s front hip crease or abdomen.
Undulating traction through the fan of the hip is done by leveraging the up and out of the hip socket before going into the stretch to gain ROM.
Further progressions of this stretch include much oscillation, rocking, and more traction at
multiple angles, such that the knee drops further toward the chest as the tissue releases. This is quite effective in quickly releasing piriformis and other rotator holding patterns and spasms. As described previously, FST is performed as a slow, rhythmic dance, conditioning and training the nervous system to systematically release the body’s pathological hold on tissue. This allows the practitioner to access and thus manipulate areas of the body not previously attained.
Front Arm Lines20
An example of bench work for the Front Arm Lines is seen in Photo 9. The practitioner
stands behind the sitting client, and exerts a traction force along the line of the humerus to
access the deep and superficial front line and joint capsule. Angles can be varied,
higher for more sternal fibers and lower for clavicular pectoral myofascia.
Alternatively, one may opt for doing the same stretch with the client lying supine over a large fitness ball (see photo 10). Here the practitioner uses gravity to her or his advantage, simply exerting traction force vectors out from the center of the joint and through the
elbow before going down tothe floor to increase ROM.
Small, slow undulations with traction work particularly well in this position, making
circular movements in various angles of abduction and flexion with external rotation, then helping the client to take their arms slowly out of this vulnerable position when finished.
Over the past six years, I have found that combining Structural Integration with Fascial
Stretch Therapy has resulted in improved outcomes for my clients and relieves the practitioner a great deal (as evidenced in myself and from SI student testimonials) from the cumulative, negative effects of compression ontheir body that can occur in the practice of SI.
The two systems are complementary and reciprocally fill the voids and gaps that I previously noted when practicing solely one system or the other.
In the beginining of my journey, I had started FST sessions only after first completing
the twelve-session KMI series with my clients.
This gave me (what I thought was) a better means by which to compare and contrast the
different subjective and objective observations and changes elicited by each system. At other times, clients wanted or were only available for regional sessions, which naturally steered me toward combining SI with FST. The success of those localized treatment sessions, coupled with several ambitious clients who signed up for FST after completing the twelve-session series, eventually provided me with a wide array of SI session, FST session, and physical therapy service options.
Combining SI with FST intrasession in the context of a full series was a natural outflow
from earlier efforts to combine system approaches, and it arose when the opportunity
Consequently, if the client leaves the decision up to me on how to design a series, I will
choose the SI-FST combination, integrating movement re-education from the very first
session. I give motor repatterning tasks that are increasingly complex, according to my initial evaluation findings and the client’s responses from session to session. Progressively, clients present with quicker, more efficient and functional movement integration, replacing habitual compensatory dysfunctional patterns.
Improvement of pain syndromes naturally follow.
As leaders within IASI have always expressed, collaboration is the best way to grow
our work and our profession and to enrich ourselves both professionally and personally as
we transform over time. It is in this spirit that the author hopes the reader has been stimulated enough by the concepts and techniques of Fascial Stretch Therapy presented here to give FST a try.
I would like to acknowledge all of my teachers and mentors, most notably my wife and partner, Ann Frederick; my SI inspiration, Thomas Myers of Kinesis; Michael Alter, author of “Science of Flexibility;” Robert Schleip of the Fascia Research
Project and Fascia Research Congress; and Thomas Findley of the Fascia Research Congress.
Photo 9: Front Arm Lines
Photo 10: Front Arm Lines on ball
1. Frederick A, Frederick C, Stretch to Win, Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2006, 1.
2. Ibid. 2.
3. Ibid., 5.
4. Ibid., 6.
5. Ibid., 7.
6. Ibid., 8.
7. Ibid. 9.
8. Ibid., 11.
9. Ibid., 12.
10. Ibid., 14.
11. Voss D, Ionta MK, Myers BJ, Knott M, Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Patterns and Techniques 3rd ed.,
Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1985.
12. Frederick A, Frederick C, Stretch to Win, Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2006, 14
13. Ibid., 105-106.
14. Myers T, Anatomy Trains: Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists, 2nd ed., Churchill Livingstone, 2008, 179.
16. Ibid., 97.
17. Ibid., 115.
18. Ibid., 208.
19. Myers T, “Fans of the Hip Joint,” Massage Magazine, No. 75, January 1998.
20. Myers T, Anatomy Trains: Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists, 2nd ed., Churchill Livingstone, 2008, 151.