IF PERCEPTION ABOUT PERCEPTION IS CHANGING, HOW ARE WE TO LOOK AT THE BODY?
Since the turn of the century, artists have been deconstructing the visual certainty of the world which has long been a hallmark of Western consciousness. In Figure 1, painter Rend Magritte distinguishes the presumed space of the pipe from the actual space of the canvas. Similarly, scientists have demolished the seeming solidity of objects by informing us that things are primarily composed of space. Neurologists tell us that what we see depends on what we can interpret and physicists tell us that the means of observation determine what can be observed. We are in the midst of a perceptual revolution with enormous consequences for us as body workers. How are we to look at the body? How can both parts of Figure 2 be true?
IPR SAID: LOOK GEOMETRICALLY!
Ida Rolf’s answer to this question was: Look geometrically. She added the idea of space to embodiment when she began to see the body in its gravitational context. For Rolf, the spatial concept of Line allowed her to revive the body, mind and spirit as indivisible and alive after it had been killed and sundered by the knife of dissection. In presenting her idea of structure, she said that,
Used in a material connotation, the word [structure] implies the presence of space; the three dimensions of ordinary space and sometimes the four dimensions of space/time.
Space provides a unified way of understanding and speaking about human being. We can talk about our clients as existing within a multiplicity of spaces with coherence and continuity: projective and introjective space; past, present and future space; cultural and social space; and abstractly, as shapes in a spatial context.
The space projected by Newtonian physics is the same as the space of apparent reality. It is without properties, empty, unlike the space of quantum physics. In quantum theory, space is the medium of physical existence and the medium of consciousness of physical existence. It is formative and informative.
SOLID STATES OF SPACE
How space operates as a medium changes by solid state organization. Solid states enjoy characteristics unavailable to their unintegrated components. This means that space has a different meaning for the existence and consciousness of the electron than for those of human being, yet both rely upon the same properties of space. Thus, space is the universal medium or ground of all being.
Human being is a process of becoming which is organized in stages or distinct solid states. Each solid state is organized by space and organizes spatial information in a characteristic way. Dr. Jason W. Brown has developed the solid state model of consciousness, “microgenesis,” which “refers to the unfolding of a mental content through qualitatively different stages….[This] unfolding… retraces levels or stages in evolution and ontogeny.” (Brown, 1991) (See Figure 3)
Intelligence is derived from a unified, formative pulse of the universe and is generated into consciousness according to the organization of the structures which perform the generation. In human being, these organizations roughly recapitulate evolutionary phases of the species as well as the ontogeny of the individual, including the development of personality.’ Brown, a neurologist, focuses on this progression as it becomes neurological, describing cognition as it traverses from brain-stem organization through end stage processes in the upper cortex. Each stage of cognitive actualization “understands” space in a distinct way, in seeming agreement with Critchlow’s observations about space and consciousness cited at the beginning of this text. (See Figure 4)
To Brown’s neural organizations, I add two pre-neural ones, the electromagnetic and the cellular, and possibly one “post-neural” one, the cosmic.2 The first two organizations of formation and consciousness predate neural intelligence processing in evolution. The last, in which a felt sense of space and “electromagnetic consciousness” comes into full, human realization, may be a specialized state of neural processing or a solid state shift towards which we are evolving.
Using this scheme, I will attempt to go through the solid states which seem to characterize human being just enough to demonstrate a link between space, solid state organization and perception. Given the immensity of the subject, I cannot hope to present much more than a taste of the available material and urge the reader to tuck into the referenced texts for more extensive feasting.
“What we observe as material bodies are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. The complexity of physics and cosmology is just a special geometry.” (Moore quoting Schroedinger, et al.)
UNIFIED FORMATION AND CONSCIOUSNESS
The universe is a unified whole at the electromagnetic level. Formation and consciousness of this whole are simultaneous and inseparable. Milo Wolff states that “[the] most extraordinary conclusion of the wave electron structure is that the laws of physics and the structure of matter ultimately depend upon waves from the total of matter in a universe” and “…continual two-way perceptive communication between each particle and other matter in its universe is required to maintain the laws of nature.” (Wolff) It should be added that “communication” or awareness is necessary because each “pulse” of formation by the universe is a unique creation. These “units of existence” may be the formation of particles and other forms fixed into fleeting being by the self-consciousness of the universe itself out of the infinite number of possibilities of the quantum potential.
The medium of this formative perception appears to be the tensegrity of space, a property of the quantum potential from which material emanates. The tensegrous structure of space determines the “packet-like” nature of energy quanta, through its resistance. This resistance is responsible for the frequency-wave shape-vibration of all matter and appears to be the means by which a comprehensible relationship between energy and mass is created. The tensegrity of space is uniform, though space density is conditioned by wave activity. (Day, Wolff)
STANDING WAVES AND THE CONTAINMENT OF SPACE
The formation of standing waves in electromagnetic arrangements which contain space signals a solid state shift from the immaterial to the material, from the sub-atomic to the atomic. Solit gives us a model of formation in Figure 5 and a fuller discussion of the geometry of space “fencing” or containment in his literature and website. Figure 6 shows DeBrolie’s model of the atom which is based on the formation of standing waves.
Some formations of standing waves are ephemeral, such as the standing waves formed by the plucking of a violin string (See Figure 7). Others, like those of a diamond, once formed lock themselves into exceptionally rigid, unvarying patterns, the rigidity and invariance of which are qualitatively integrated. The standing wave; of human solid state existence fall somewhere in between these two examples and can be manipulated, we do with Rolfing® structural integration.
Most interesting to us as Rolfers is Gray’s model of the hydrogen 2s atom showing “a cross-section of the probability density plotted in 3dimensions.” When energy is added to an atom such as is depicted in Figure 8, the nodal sphere increases as the electron’s relationship between the nucleus changes to accommodate the change in the frequency-wave shape of the electron, making a new whole number of standing waves with a characteristic wave shape in the atomic configuration. In other words, adding or subtracting energy changes spatial relationships and changing spatial relationships adds or subtracts energy. Thus, we can use the material connection between space and energy to reform structure.
The energy of structure determines human spatial requirements. Structural reality at the electromagnetic level is translated through the solid states of human organization, producing cognition and behavior which will meet these spatial requirements. This means that even though this level of existence is subliminal, it nevertheless regulates every moment of human being. The perception of the electron is subsumed into the perception of the person.
FROM ELECTROMAGNETISM TO THE NEOCORTEX
Both Brown and Ingber offer insight into the translation process from the electromagnetic through the neocortical organization. Of the transition itself, Brown says that:
Early in cognition, sensor-motor behavior comes to be organized into a spatial model. At this stage, perception first appears as an abstract continuation of the sensory (physical) stimulus. Similarly, action develops out of a foundation of pure motility. If movement can be taken to refer to behavior in physical space – motility outside of cognition – then action occurs when movement undergoes a cognitive transformation. (Brown, 1977) (emphasis added)
What Brown refers to as “stimulus” and “motility outside of cognition,” to me both relate to the involuntary process of formation which occurs as our electromagnetic wave fronts intercept and make meaningful what Kaufman calls the impactful universe. What is fascinating about Brown’s comments here is that he observes a transformational state shift which is accompanied/created by a shift in cognition: as movement is assigned meaning, it becomes action. This transition shows how information is transmuted from the “raw data” of an impactful, formative universe to the holistic behavior: of cellular consciousness and beyond.
TENSEGRITY – MECHANISM OF WHOLENESS
According to Ingber, “[t]ensegrity structures… share one critical feature, which is that tension is continuously transmitted across all structural members. In other words, an increase in tension in one of the members results in increased tension in members throughout the structure – ever ones on the opposite side.” Thus, tensegrity provides the means by which structures act as a whole, rather than as a collection of coexisting parts. Ingber is careful to point out that no element of structure is unaffected by changes in tensegrity, that neither the extra cellular matrix nor the nuclei are exempt from its communicative, formative reach. Moreover, he further notes that “the principles of tensegrity apply atessentially every detectable size scale in the body,” from the molecular to the aggregate. (See Figure 9.) Ingber demonstrates how tensegrity is used by cells for enactment of vital processes and solid state awareness.
The tensegrity model suggests that the structure of the cell’s cytoskeleton can be changed by altering the balance of physical forces transmitted across the cell surface. This find is important because many of the enzymes and other substances that control protein synthesis, energy conversion and growth in the cell are physically immobilized on the cytoskeleton. For this reason, changing cytoskeletal geometry and mechanics could affect biochemical reactions and even alter the genes that are activated and thus the proteins that are made.
If we look at Holden and Singer’s diagrams of the origins of piezoelectricity (Figure 10), we can see the powerful connection between spatial relations and electric potentials in integrated structures. Experiments by Chen, Mrksich, Huang, Whitesides and Ingber show that “by simply modifying the shape of the cell, they could switch cells between different genetic programs.” Oschman reminds us that “piezoelectricity [also] works in reverse,” that “if an electric charge is placed across a crystal, its dimensions will change.In the presence of an oscillatory electric field (alternately positive and negative) the crystal will rapidly expand and contract.” (1997) Piezoelectric expansion and contraction may act as a powerful fluid pump, the action of which, in turn, propagates further piezoelectric effects. (Oschman, 1994, Oschman, 1997)
Interestingly, two tensegrous cellular pathways seem to coexist which may correlate to the visceral and motor compartments and activities of the aggregate human being. (Ingber, referring to research by Wang and Maniotis) These divergent pathways may explain an initiation point of Brown’s parallel trajectories of action and perception in cognition. (Brown, 1977)
We now come to the neural organizations of perception or how evolution has provided us with successive means by which we make sense of the tensegrous operations of space. It is important to keep in mind that the body mind under review is a recurring process. Physicality itself is a quantum event, functioning like microtubules which have been the subject of so much recent study. These assemble and disassemble in constantly repeated instances of form and information. (Oschman, 1997, Hameroff) In the discussion below, structure should be imagined as a repetitive enactment rather than as an inherent existence.
In microgenetic theory, “wave fronts or fields rather than centers or modules and connections” account for the neural states which underlie cognitive functions. “The process through which cognition unfolds appears to have the nature of a continuous wave front reiterated at sequential points (levels) in a transitional pattern.” (Brown, 1977) The development of the wave front into cognition appears to be bound to the development of spatial representation. (Brown, 1988) (See Figure 4)
Figure 3 describes the microgenetic production of each “unit” of consciousness as it emerges from nonneural or pre-neural embodiment through successive layers of brain structure, from the bottom to the top. Neurally organized cognition proceeds through these layers in solid states: we construct the world from successive evolutionary organizations. (Brown, 1977)
Each stage of the microgenetic progression is marked by distinct stages of spatial modeling. Indeed, for Brown,
The action microgeny is exactly parallel to the object microgeny. Both act and object begin “within” the body and differentiate outward to the external world. The space of successive levels in the forming action corresponds with levels in the forming object. (1988)
Given Brown’s observation of proximal to distal action and the wave front nature of microgenetic progression, it is not far-fetched to imagine that tensegrity substructures exist in relation to primitive brain organizations and solid state production of consciousness. We have many clues to pursue in our search. Muscles act as organizations with discrete solid state properties, transmitting pressure and tension much like cells do. We could find new meaning in the reciprocity of tension between the rhomboids and the psoas in terms of consciousness. Examining the human “alphabet of movement – primitive reflexes, righting reactions and equilibrium responses” – to use Bainbridge Cohen’s terms, and developmental movement sequences for structural involvement could reveal the links between tensegrity, brain layer and cognition.
Figure 11 shows formations which may correspond to such substructures but it is important to distinguish between the appearance of these structures and their tensegrous conduction of energy and information. The latter refer to the underlying electromagnetic patterns of formation and may behave in ways which belie the seeming symmetry of surface observation.
EVOLUTIONS OF INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence begins at the electromagnetic level as a kind of Fourier analysis of complex wave fronts. This function establishes proprioceptive coordinates based on the rhythmic pressure of space itself. The cellular or amoebic stage organizes motility into action. The impact of a wave front is translated into tensegrity of structure and its accompanying piezoelectricity.
At this solid state, human being generates affect, the inner aspect of emotion, or “feeling” which will be taken up by subsequent levels of consciousness.
At the level of brain stem involvement, motility has become sensori-motion behavior. Consciousness models space in which this behavior is oriented or, as Brown puts it, “sensori-motor behavior comes to be organized into [a] spatial model.” (1977)
Sensation is incorporated into a perceptual space model, and develops into a generalized, undifferentiated pre-object. The space of the perception moves outward from the space of the body, but there is still only a single space field [at the level of brain stem organization]. (Brown, 1977)
At the limbic level, Brown traces the forming object and exteriorizing space of the emerging world/object as it proceeds “from the body-onbody organization in axial and proximal musculature out into the space of the distal limbs. This space field achieves an extrapersonal, but still subjectively intrapsychic, character.” (1977)
The object/world becomes completely exteriorized into three-dimensional, Euclidean space with the involvement of the parietal lobes. As the world becomes more externalized and elaborated cognitively through this and succeeding stages, so does the self arise as an object in an objectified universe. At the neocortical or paleomammalian level, the intrapersonal self is not an object of cognition, only coming into awareness at the neomammalian or symbolic stage of production. (Brown, 1977)
THE ENTIRE BODY IS INVOLVED IN COGNITION
The process of neural involvement is seen by Brown as a “progression from an inception in archaic structures organized about the midline in a primitive, unextended body-centered space (actions dependent on ‘internal context’) toward discrete asymmetric movements with the distal musculature on ostensibly real objects in the external world (‘goal oriented’ actions) corresponds with levels in affect, language and object and space representation.” (1977) It is clear from Brown’s description that the entire body is involved in cognition.
Complementary work by Lisbeth Marcher and Marianne Bentzen in Bodynamics theory details how psychomotor imprinting at the solid state level of the musculature establishes the refined reciprocal relationship between the perceived environment and the perceiver, as is evident from Figure 12. Cultural models of reality are inseparable from embodiment. We see this most clearly in the almost universal incorporation in the West of the understanding of the body as it is dissected and in its correlation to machinery. Thus, we tend to act like animated corpses and exercise antagonistic muscle pairs with levers, pulleys and weights.
Psychological structures do not preexist the evolution of perceiver and perceived into seemingly differentiated entities. According to Brown,
The ego is not a function or a functional division; it is only a possibility, an achievement that must be continually renewed. …The ego does not act in the world. World and ego are represented contemporally in the same cognitive plane. Ego is not a site where action is initiated; it is the terminal point, the outcome, of an action development. (1977)
THE ROLE OF THE SENSES IN PERCEPTION
What is usually meant by “sensory perception” or information received from the sensory apparatus of the body mind occupies an interesting position in Brown’s theory. For him, “sensations are not simply built up into perceptions, but rather they modify the otherwise independent course of cognition in the direction of the physical object.”
For Brown, visual and other sensory information constrain a perception that is almost complete. Language and speech are seen as end stage products as well. “Words in an utterance are not the building blocks of that utterance, but are the final aim towards which that utterance are directed.” (1977)
Moreover, “all sensory modalities are present in every perception,” (1977) which is not to say that they are all equally present but that they form an undifferentiated whole. Fascinatingly, this agrees with the observations of Jacques Lusseyran, blind from the age of 8:
All our senses, I believe, join into one. They are the successive stages of a single perception, and that perception is always one of touch.
THE ILLUSION OF HUMAN PERCEPTION
If it is true, as quantum physics tells us, that the universe is emergent and probabilistic, rather than enduring and definite, why does it not appear so? Brown’s answer is that “mind has evolved to stabilize change. The world is perceived through a distorting prism. The distortion is necessary to perceive the world. Objects are observer error in the brain’s instrument of observation. This observer error is built into the brain by evolution.” (1995)
Kaufman tell us that “physical r as a whole has no independent existence… outside the context experienced/expiriencer relationship,” though, “the experiential relationship does not alter the unified nature of the underlying reality is forming the impactive experience relationship” which is “unbordered and not ultimately definable.” He states that:
The support of the illusion is independent existence of ob reality is the consistency of experience, and the consistence of the experience of others who verify that experience. It was consistency of experience which was shattered with the advent experience in the quantum real where wave/particle duality appeared. (emphasis added)
Kaufman asserts that “physical reality is no less dependent on the existence of an experiencer than existence of a rainbow,” suggest that while we can grab a rock where we cannot grab a rainbow, “if we try to grab hold of what the rock is composed of, i.e., quantum particles we find that at this level what the rock is made of begins to act like rainbow, existing in relation to o perspective.”
IN DEPTH PERCEPTION
The picture which seems to be emerging is that, to paraphrase t saying “Color is the suffering of light,” the senses, which appear detect an objective, “real” world, the suffering of perception. The senses may obscure the perception reality more than they illuminate it! States of consciousness which transcend the illusion of the senses seem to permit impressions of the continuum which underlies apparent reality. This refinement of perception may represent an end stage beyond the microgenetic end stage of the neocortical, a development not unforeseen by Brown himself. (1977)
Lusseyran says, “In return for all the benefits that sight brings we are forced to give up others whose existence we don’t even suspect,” seeming to bear out Brown’s idea that transcendent states of consciousness are unanticipated by ordinary perception, just as waking consciousness is unanticipated by dreaming.
The problem with vision, claims Lusseyran, is that “our eyes run over the surface of things… They half see much more than they see, and they never weigh. They are satisfied with appearances, and for them the world slows and slides by, but lacks substance.” This remark uncannily echoes Atkins’s observation that “the difference between classical and quantum mechanics can be seen to due to the fact that classical mechanics took too superficial a view of the world: it dealt with appearances. However, quantum mechanics accepts that appearances ire the manifestation of a deeper, structure (the wave function) and that all calculations must be carried out on this substructure.”
Apparent reality is a self-deception Atkins writes that “the energy quanta of macroscopic objects are so small hat changes in their energy appear to be continuous. It was that “near continuity” which “misled the classical physicists.” Psychological rests have demonstrated that normal human perception constructs patterns from discontinuous lines and curves. Magritte’s painting of the `pipe that isn’t one” shows us how we infuse what we see with spatial meaning. This cognitive “mistake” is “the way in which we experience space… a characteristic of the dimensions of our consciousness.” (Critchlow) The projection of continuity by perception allows us to construct the sensation of “twist” and other somatic distortions out of the various electromagnetic events which constitute structure and consciousness.
Apparent reality is a deception of the self. The perception which constructs apparent reality is connected with sympathetic nervous system arousal needed for coordinated movements and the formation of an observer-self who makes those movements. Normal human perception derives from the sharpened senses, a sharpening which seems to dampen gradations of experience.
CULTIVATING STATE SHIFTS OF EMBODIMENT AND PERCEPTION
The physical organization of psychosexual psychomotor development is an integration of imprints and traumatic events occurring over time, recapitulated afresh with each microgenetic incarnation. Though apparently symmetrical, its tensegrity and energy conduction is anything but. Its spatial references include projections forward and backward in time, as well as into such immediate space as is required for charge and discharge of its enactment of structure and consciousness. It requires a high level of sympathetic nervous system arousal simply for energetic maintenance. Cottingham and Maitland’s paper on vagal tone seems to suggest that establishing order geometrically, as Rolfing does, reduces the solid state need for elevated levels of sympathetic nervous system arousal, permitting are ciprocal rise in parasympathetic nervous system activity.
Evidently, meditation can affect standing wave production indicating at least a temporary geometric shift in the embodiment of its practitioners. In Bentov’s paper “The Kundalini Effect,” he describes meditation practices which result in a fluctuating magnetic field around the head. This field, derived from standing waves generated in the “heart-aorta system,” Bentov believes, “act[s] as an antenna, interacting with the electric and magnetic fields already in the environment.” (See Figure 13.) He repeatedly notes the movement of the body in “simply harmonic motion.” He views this phenomenon as a part of the development of the nervous system not necessarily limited to the practice of meditation. Bentov correlated numerous instances of an array of physical symptoms such as muscle spasms, fevers and headaches with kundalini meditation which seems to indicate that cultivation of coherent energetic states initiates or is accompanied by dramatic changes in embodiment. We know that Ida Rolf believed that cultivation of orderly energetic flow led to transcendent psychic states. (Hutchins)
The twisted pair of snakes meant to show an optimal configuration of the immaterial structure of human being in Figure 14, may depict the human gravitational system resulting from “appropriate phase conjunction of [electromagnetic] forces.” (Woodhouse) Babbit’s model of the atom seems to show a similar conjunction of electromagnetic activity. (Figure 15) Science is just beginning to investigate the creation and uses of scalar waves which result when electromagnetic force fields are locked in mutual cancellation. Wolff calls this electromagnetic configuration a “space resonance” and claims it forms the structure of the electron.
Conrad Da’oud believes that certain of her Continuum movement practices cultivate the generation of scalar waves, altering the way in which gravitation waves effect the body mind. (Oschman, 1999)
It is crucial to remember that any given human solid state is the accomplishment of an electromagnetic pattern which may arise from a range of apparent embodiments. Such patterns are not directly equivalent to apparent configurations of form. Manipulation affecting the fascia taps into the electromagnetic patterning, to change the way in which gravitation operates in human being.
COSMIC CONSCIOUSNESS: STATE SHIFT OF DETACHMENT AND CONNECTION
By working locally to achieve holistic geometric results, Rolfing may induce a state shift in form and consciousness. The distinctions in pattern between space and form made byan aroused autonomic nervous system seem to blur under different tensegrous conditions which provides, as Salveson puts it, “some sense of the whole.” The embodiment which strives to maintain a continuous self in a continuous universe seems to become metamorphic once it senses the continuity of space as a background of fluctuating sensation. In such a state, “form is not different from emptiness, and emptiness is not different from form … Sensation, perception, action, consciousness are also like this.” (Kannon Bosatsu) Form as such becomes nothing to cling to, emptiness, nothing to fear. Connected with the universe through the continuous medium of space, consciousness can experience flux as information.
Lusseyran’s blind efforts to know his environment reveal that a change in perception is the result of a change in the perceiver. He discovered that, when he learned to touch by connecting his “current” with that of the objects he found in the surrounding world, he arrived at the end of “living in front of things and a beginning of living with them.” Might this not be analogous to the transition experienced by Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz, when she is surprised to find trees and other entities she had imagined were inanimate speaking to her?
As with the sense of touch, what came to me from objects was pressure, but pressure of a kind so new to me that at first I didn’t think of calling it by that name. When I became really attentive and did not oppose my own pressure to my surroundings, then trees and rocks came to me and printed their shape upon me like fingers leaving their impression in wax. (Lusseyran) (emphasis added)
The attention Lusseyran learned to pay seems to be a matter of holding his ground and cultivating a state of awareness devoid of desire. Perception of this type required that he “…hold himself in such a state so far removed from [my] old habits that I could not keep it up for very long. I had to let the trees come toward me and not allow the slightest inclination to move toward them, the smallest wish to know them, to come between them and me. I could not afford to be curious or impatient or proud of my accomplishment.” His childhood discovery is reminiscent of the state of detachment said to be the key to higher states of consciousness in Eastern meditation practices.
This passionless place of experience is not devoid of feeling, however. Holding the space of “paranormal” perception seems to be, as Oschman’s research tells us it is, a matter of appreciation. (Oschman, 1998, citing research by McCraty and others) Perhaps acceptance is the solid state emotion of cosmic perspective.
The infinite wonders of the universe are revealed to us in exact measure as we are capable of receiving them. The keenness of our vision depends not on how much we can see, but on how much we can feel. Nor yet does mere knowledge create beauty. Nature sings her most exquisite songs to those who love her. (Lusseyran)
Artists, physicists, neurologists, bodhisattvas and visionaries like Ida Rolf all seem to have found a way to tap deeply into the reality beyond appearance. Let’s give their perceptions some space!
I regret that the scope of my topic and limitations of space prevent me from presenting Dr. Brown’s complete model of consciousness. Though the general idea is quite simple, his exposition of the neurological pathways of the trajectories of action and perception is richly detailed and meticulously developed, amply repaying close examination.
I am particularly obliged to Michael Salveson, whose paper, “The Evocation of Unique States of Consciousness as a Consequence of Somatic Practices,” spurred me to investigate these matters and whose use of the concept of shape in his explanations of our work made a lasting impact in my thinking. I hope he forgives me my resistant and argumentative style of assimilation!
This paper simply could not have been written without the work and unstinting generosity of Jim and Nora Oschman. No words could suffice to repay my obligation to them or I would fill pages with my profuse thanks.
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Figure 1. Magritte, Rend, “La Trahison des Images,” 1929. (Translation: “The Treachery of Images”)
Figure 2a. Kapit, Wynn and Elson, Lawrence M., The Anatomy Coloring Book, Harper & Row, New York, 1977; Polarity therapy view of the bodymind, from Oschman (1998).
Figure 2b. This illustration was originally published by Richard Gordon in his book on Polarity Therapy. The artists for Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies re-did it for the Journal, and it was published as Figure 2 in J.L. Oschman’s, “What is ‘healing energy’ Part 2B, Polarity, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy and related methods,” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 1(2): p. 125. This is the version shown here.
Figure 3. Oschman, James L., Ph.D., “What is Healing Energy?, The scientific basis of energy medicine,” a series of articles published in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, edited by Leon Chaitow, ND, DO, Churchill Livingstone, Publisher, New York, January 1998. Dr. Oschman’s diagram uses an image of the brain from Mclean, 1972; Brown, Jason, W., M.D., Mind, Brain and Consciousness, The Neuropsychology of Cognition, Academic Press, New York, 1977.
Figure 4. Brown, Jason, W., M.D., The Life of the Mind, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1988
Figure 5. Oschman, James L., Ph.D., working notes.
Figure 6. de Broglie, Louis. Figure 167, from The Ascent of Man, by Bronowski, J., Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1973.
Figure 7. Oschman, James L., Ph.D., “The Electromagnetic Environment: Implications for Bodywork. Part 1. Environmental Energies,” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 4 (in press).
Figure 8. Gray, Harry B., Chemical Bonds, An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Structure, W.A. Benjamin, Inc., Menlo Park, CA 1973.
Figure 9. adapted by J.L. Oschman from Figure 8.3, J.A. Young, The Life of Mammals, Oxford University Press, N.Y., 1957.
Figure 10. Holden, Alan and Singer, Phylis, Crystals and Crystal Growing, Anchor Books, 1960, Garden City, N.Y., 1960.
Figure 11. Dart, R.A., “Voluntary musculature in the human body. The double-spiral arrangement.” The British Journal of Physical Medicine, 13(12NS: 265-268, 1950. Drawing by Manaka, Yoshio, personal communication to James L. Oschman from Steven Birch.
Figure 12. BODYnamic Institute, 1991, using Bandinelli’s Lackoon, Babinetto Uffizi, Firenze, and an excerpt from Pisannello’s drawing of four women, Museum Boymans van Beuningen, Rotterdam.
Figure 13. Bentov, Itzhak, “Micromotion of the Body As A Factor In The Development Of the Nervous System,” Appendix A, Kundalini – Psychosis or Transcendence?, L. Sannella, published by H.S. Dakin Co., San Francisco, CA., 1976
Figure 14. Allison, Mark, based on charts #2 and #3 in Dr. Randolph,Stone’s “Polarity Therapy,” Vol.1, CRCS, Sebastapol, CA, 1887, courtesy of the Polarity Center of Colorado. 1988.
Figure 15. Babbit, E.D., “The principles o’ Light and Color,” self-published, East Orange, N.J., 1896; reprinted Citadel Press, Seacaucus, NJ, 1967, Sun Publishing, New Mexico, 1992, among others.
1. In recent correspondence about this article, Dr. Brown stressed the importance of understanding that the recapitulation of evolution is “for process” and does not involve intact entities or the replication of evolutionary stages.
2. In many of Ida Rolf’s texts, she referrer to embodiment as a “field” event when describing that aspect of human being which is immaterial and interdependent with the rest of creation. Here, I am distinguishing this aspect into two parts, the electromagnetic and the cosmic. The term “electomagnetic” is not meant to preclude the remaining fundamental fields, gravitational, strong nuclear and weak nuclear forces but refers to an as yet undiscovered unified realm.