ABSTRACT Breathing is important. The recent COVID-19 pandemic, and the need to wear masks, has raised the awareness of our breathing efficiency, or lack thereof. We can last for days without food or water, but for most people, uncomfortable breathing for only a few minutes will bring on a serious stress response. Given its importance, it is surprising how little was known through rigorous scientific study of the nuanced mechanics and biochemistry of integrated, efficient breathing, particularly when sleeping, until only the past decade or so. There are, however, modern clinical breathing practices, which draw on the cumulative observational knowledge of cultures and civilizations tracing back into antiquity. One such approach, the Buteyko breathing method, has been shown in clinical trials to significantly improve the symptoms of asthma (Thomas and Bruton, 2014), while also being effective in addressing sleep apnea (McKoewn, O’Connor-Reina, and Plaza 2021).